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Adv Radiat Oncol


Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and describe the feasibility, clinical outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes of reduced planning target volume (PTV) margins for prostate cancer treatment using real-time, continuous, intrafraction monitoring with implanted radiation frequency transponder beacons.

Methods and materials: For this prospective, nonrandomized trial, the Calypso localization system was used for intrafraction target localization in 31 patients with a PTV margin reduced to 2 mm in all directions. A total of 1333 fractions were analyzed with respect to movement of the prostate, pauses and interruptions, and dosimetric data. Pre- and posttreatment quality-of-life scores were tracked at baseline, during treatment, and up to 24 months after treatment.

Results: The mean time of daily treatment was 10 minutes, with 96.1% of all treatments falling within a 20-minute treatment window standard. On average, beacon motion exceeded 3 mm during active treatment only 1.76% of the time. The average length of treatment interruption was 34.2 seconds, with an average of 1 interruption every 3.39 fractions. The displacement or excursion of the prostate was the greatest in the superior or inferior dimension (0.11 mm and 0.09 mm, respectively) and anterior or posterior dimension (0.07 mm and 0.13 mm, respectively), followed by the left or right dimension (0.05 mm and 0.06 mm, respectively). At 6 months, patients demonstrated a smaller change in Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite scores than the ProtecT comparator group (decreased short-term morbidity). However, in the Bowel and Urinary domains at 12 and 24 months, there was no significant difference.

Conclusions: Our data confirm and support that the use of Calypso tracking with intensity modulated radiation therapy reliably provides minimal disruption to daily treatments and overall time of treatment, with the PTV only moving outside of a 3-mm margin < 2% of the time. The use of a 3-mm PTV margin provides adequate dosimetric coverage while minimizing genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity.

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