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Publication Date


Publication Title

J Immunother Cancer


Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Autophagosomes; Cancer Vaccines; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Combined Modality Therapy; Docetaxel; Drug Administration Schedule; Female; Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; Humans; Injections, Intradermal; Interferon-gamma; Interleukin-10; Interleukin-5; Lung Neoplasms; Male; Middle Aged; Neoplasm Staging; Pilot Projects; Pleural Effusion, Malignant; Taxoids; Treatment Outcome; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha


BACKGROUND: Tumor-derived autophagosome vaccines (DRibbles) have the potential to broaden immune response to poorly immunogenic tumors.

METHODS: Autologous vaccine generated from tumor cells harvested from pleural effusions was administered to patients with advanced NSCLC with the objectives of assessing safety and immune response. Four patients were vaccinated and evaluable for immune response; each received two to four doses of vaccine. Study therapy included two cycles of docetaxel 75 mg/m

RESULTS: Three of four patients had tumor cells available for testing. Autologous tumor-specific immune response was seen in two of the three, manifested by IL-5 (1 patient after 3 doses), and IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10 (after 4 doses in one patient). All 4 patients had evidence of specific antibody responses against potential tumor antigens. All patients came off study after 4 or fewer vaccine treatments due to progression of disease. No significant immune toxicities were seen during the course of the study.

CONCLUSIONS: DRibble vaccine given with GM-CSF appeared safe and capable of inducing an immune response against tumor cells in this small, pilot study. There was no evidence of efficacy in this small poor-prognosis patient population, with treatment not feasible. Trial registration NCT00850785, initial registration date February 23, 2009.

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