Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Int J Environ Res Public Health


Adult; Child Behavior; Child, Preschool; Depression; Female; Humans; Male; Mexico; Mothers; Rural Population; Young Adult; diversity/inclusion


Over 50% of mothers in rural Mexico have high depressive symptoms, and their children's health and development are likely to be negatively affected. A critical question is whether children vary in their vulnerability to the effects of high maternal depressive symptoms according to their indigenous ethnicity, maternal education, or household wealth. Our sample included 4442 mothers and 5503 children from an evaluation of Mexico's social welfare program. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and child behavior was measured using an adapted version of the Behavior Problems Index (BPI). Multiple linear regression models were used to explore the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems, and the heterogeneity of associations by indigenous ethnicity, maternal education, and household assets. We found that having greater maternal depressive symptoms was significantly associated with having a child with more behavior problems (

Clinical Institute

Women & Children

Clinical Institute

Mental Health


Behavioral Health


Family Medicine


Obstetrics & Gynecology