Development and validation of a web-based electronic application in managing antithrombotic agents in patients undergoing GI endoscopy.

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Publication Date


Publication Title

Gastrointestinal endoscopy


Antithrombotics; Electronic Application; Endoscopy


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Antithrombotic therapy among patients undergoing GI procedures is frequently encountered and can impact the procedure and patient outcomes. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines help to manage these medications before endoscopy depending on the patient's clinical status and the type of GI procedure. However, currently there is no readily available electronic tool that can assist in decision making regarding preprocedural management of these agents. Our aim was to develop an electronic application (ENDOAID) to help manage antithrombotic agents before endoscopy and to perform a validation study to test its accuracy.

METHODS: ENDOAID, a web-based application, was developed using JavaScript software based on an algorithm to categorize patients and procedures into low and high risk as outlined in the updated ASGE guidelines published in 2016. Once pertinent information regarding a patient's clinical status and the procedure are entered, the application generates recommendations for the management of antithrombotic agents based on their cardiovascular risk and published ASGE guidelines. We performed a validation study with 52 patients who were referred to endoscopy and were taking antithrombotic agents. The patients were divided into groups of 5, and in the simulation, each patient had 4 procedures. Different GI procedures were used in the simulation for each group of patients to ensure the entire spectrum of procedures were covered for analysis. Every simulation was then run through ENDOAID. The results from ENDOAID were compared with recommendations based on ASGE guidelines. The latter was derived by consensus between 2 endoscopists (the criterion standard). The personnel using the ENDOAID and those using the ASGE guidelines were different to avoid bias. Any clinical scenario that was unclear or not clearly outlined in ASGE guidelines was discussed with expert endoscopists for a final decision. We evaluated ASGE recommendations and calculated concordance rates between guidelines and ENDOAID results. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to assess the correlation between ENDOAID results to guidelines.

RESULTS: There was a total of 208 simulated encounters, including 26 procedures. Initial concordance between ENDOAID recommendations and the criterion standard was seen in 206 encounters (99.03%). The 2 encounters that needed further review occurred among patients with Factor V Leiden mutation and DVT from APLA syndrome, and who were undergoing high-risk procedures that had ambiguous guidelines. ENDOAID suggested consultations with an expert before the elective procedure. This suggestion was agreed upon by expert endoscopist consensus. Thus, ENDOAID showed a 100% concordance with the ASGE guideline for managing antithrombotics. There was a high degree of correlation (r = 0.996, p < 0.01) between ENDOAID results with ASGE.

CONCLUSION: We have developed and validated an easy-to-use web-based application that can help in periprocedural management of antithrombotics. Such an application has the potential to simplify the management of these agents and potentially prevent procedural delays, cancellations, or unnecessary consults.

Clinical Institute

Digestive Health






Swedish Digestive Health Institute