Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

PLoS One


Adult; Body Mass Index; Cohort Studies; Diabetes, Gestational; Female; Glucose Intolerance; Humans; Logistic Models; Odds Ratio; Overweight; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications; Prenatal Care; Risk Factors; Snoring


BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or habitual snoring is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes among both men and non-pregnant women. We examined the association of habitual snoring during early pregnancy with risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

METHODS: A cohort of 1,579 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We collected information about snoring frequency during early pregnancy. Results from screening and diagnostic tests for IGT and GDM were abstracted from medical records. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of IGT and GDM associated with snoring in early pregnancy.

RESULTS: Overall, women who snored "most or all of the time" had a 2.1-fold increased odds of IGT (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.31-3.35) and a 2.5-fold increased odds of GDM (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.34-4.67) as compared with women who never snored. Compared with lean women (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)/m2) who did not snore, lean snorers had a 2-fold increased odds of GDM (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.07-3.68). The odds of GDM risk was particularly elevated among overweight women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) who snored (OR = 5.01; 95% CI 2.71-9.26). However, there was no evidence of an interaction between overweight and snoring with GDM risk (p-value = 0.144).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings, if confirmed, may have important implications for tailoring prenatal care for overweight pregnant women, and /or those with a history of habitual snoring in early pregnancy.

Clinical Institute

Kidney & Diabetes

Clinical Institute

Women & Children


Obstetrics & Gynecology