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Journal of translational medicine [electronic resource]


BACKGROUND: ACAM2000, a thymidine kinase (TK)-positive strain of vaccinia virus, is the current smallpox vaccine in the US. Preclinical testing demonstrated potent oncolytic activity of ACAM2000 against several tumor types. This Phase I clinical trial of ACAM2000 delivered by autologous adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells was conducted to determine the safety and feasibility of such a treatment in patients with advanced solid tumors or acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

METHODS: Twenty-four patients with solid tumors and two patients with AML participated in this open-label, non-randomized dose-escalation trial. All patients were treated with SVF derived from autologous fat and incubated for 15 min to 1 h with ACAM2000 before application. Six patients received systemic intravenous application only, one patient received intra-tumoral application only, 15 patients received combination intravenous with intra-tumoral deployment, 3 patients received intravenous and intra-peritoneal injection and 1 patient received intravenous, intra-tumoral and intra-peritoneal injections. Safety at each dose level of ACAM2000 (1.4 × 10

RESULTS: No serious toxicities (> grade 2) were reported. Seven patients reported an adverse event (AE) in this study: self-limiting skin rashes, lasting 7 to 18 days-an expected adverse reaction to ACAM2000. No AEs leading to study discontinuation were reported. Viral DNA was detected in all patients' blood samples immediately following treatment. Interestingly, in 8 patients viral DNA disappeared 1 day and re-appeared 1 week post treatment, suggesting active viral replication at tumor sites, and correlating with longer survival of these patients. No major increase in cytokine levels or correlation between cytokine levels and skin rashes was noted. We were able to assess some initial efficacy signals, especially when the ACAM2000/SVF treatment was combined with checkpoint inhibition.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with ACAM2000/SVF in patients with advanced solid tumors or AML is safe and well tolerated, and several patients had signals of an anticancer effect. These promising initial clinical results merit further investigation of therapeutic utility. Trial registration Retrospectively registered (ISRCTN#10201650) on October 22, 2018.

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Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)



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