Development and psychometric validation of the novel Glucose Monitoring Experiences Questionnaire (GME-Q) among adults with type 1 diabetes.

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Diabetes technology & therapeutics


Background Glucose monitoring is an essential aspect of self-care for people with type 1 diabetes. With technologies developing rapidly, valid assessment of user experiences and satisfaction is needed. Our aim was to develop a novel measure: the Glucose Monitoring Experiences Questionnaire (GME-Q). Methods Questionnaire design was informed by exploratory and cognitive debriefing interviews. The GME-Q was included in a large online survey enabling psychometric validation. Results The interview sample included 17 adults (aged (mean±SD) 46±11 years, 53% women) with type 1 diabetes duration of 26±14 years. The proposed conceptual framework included three domains: 'Effectiveness', 'Intrusiveness' and 'Convenience', assessed with 25 items plus a single, overview item. The validation sample included 589 adults (aged 44±15 years; 64% women) with type 1 diabetes (duration: 22±14 years, self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) using finger-prick devices: median [IQR] 6 [4,7)] daily checks). Questionnaire acceptability was indicated: 98% (n=578) completion rate. After deleting three redundant items, principal components analysis supported a 22-item questionnaire with three domains ('Effectiveness' (9 items); 'Intrusiveness' (6 items); 'Convenience' (7 items)), accounting for 55% of variance, with good internal consistency reliability (α=0.83-0.88). Subscales correlated significantly (rs=0.44-0.66, p

Clinical Institute

Kidney & Diabetes