Peripheral Arterial Disease in Women: an Overview of Risk Factor Profile, Clinical Features, and Outcomes.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Current atherosclerosis reports


Peripheral arterial disease; Sex differences; Women


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the third most common manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD), following coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. PAD remains underdiagnosed and under-treated in women.

RECENT FINDINGS: Women with PAD experience more atypical symptoms and poorer overall health status. The prevalence of PAD in women increases with age, such that more women than men have PAD after the age of 40 years. There is under-representation of PAD patients in clinical trials in general and women in particular. In this article, we address the lack of women participants in PAD trials. We then present a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology/risk factor profile, clinical features, treatment, and outcomes. PAD is prevalent in women and its global burden is on the rise despite a decline in global age-standardized death rate from CVD. The importance of this issue has been underlined by the American Heart Association's (AHA) "Call to Action" scientific statement on PAD in women. Large-scale campaigns are needed to increase awareness among physicians and the general public. Furthermore, effective treatment strategies must be implemented.

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)

Clinical Institute

Women & Children