Primary hyperparathyroidism is a hormonal disorder whose prevalence is approximately 1-2% in the United States of America. The disease has become more recognizable to clinicians in an earlier phase and, at present, patients can be diagnosed with "classic", "normocalcemic", "normohormonal", or "mild, asymptomatic" primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgery, with a focused parathyroidectomy when possible, or a four-gland exploration, is the only way to cure the disease. Cure is determined by use of intra-operative parathyroid hormone monitoring with long-term cure rates ranging from 90-95%. Newer adjuncts to surgery include CT or PET imaging and near-infrared immunofluorescence. This article highlights updates in parathyroid disease and advances in parathyroid surgery; it does not provide a comprehensive summary of the disease process or a review of surgical indications, which can be found in the AAES guidelines or NIH Symposium on primary hyperparathyroidism.
Goldfarb, Melanie and Singer, Frederick R, "Recent advances in the understanding and management of primary hyperparathyroidism." (2020). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 2904.