Dietary intake and urinary metals among pregnant women in the Pacific Northwest.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)


Adult; Arsenic; Cadmium; Diet; Dietary Exposure; Environmental Pollutants; Female; Humans; Magnesium; Maternal Exposure; Metals; Molybdenum; Northwestern United States; Pregnancy; Seafood; Selenium; Shellfish; Vegetables; Washington; Zinc; Arsenic; Cadmium; Maternal diet; Molybdenum; Pregnancy


Pregnancy is a period when the mother and her offspring are susceptible to the toxic effects of metals. We investigated associations of intake of frequently consumed foods with urinary metals concentrations among pregnant women in the Pacific Northwest. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd), arsenic (U-As) and molybdenum (U-Mo) concentrations from spot urine samples in early pregnancy (15 weeks of gestation, on average) among 558 women from Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. We assessed periconceptional dietary intake using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We also determined early pregnancy zinc concentrations in serum. Statistical analyses involved multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for smoking status, age, race/ethnicity, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and gravidity. The geometric mean and range in μg/g creatinine for U-Cd, U-As and U-Mo were 0.29 (0.1-8.2), 18.95 (3-550), and 72.1 (15-467), respectively. U-Cd was positively associated with dietary zinc intake (P-value = 0.004) and serum zinc (P-value

Clinical Institute

Women & Children