Disparities in Amputation Rates for Non-metastatic Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas and the Impact on Survival.

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Annals of surgical oncology : the official journal of the Society of Surgical Oncology


BACKGROUND: There are no definitive recommendations guiding amputation use in extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). This study explores disparities in amputation rates and survival in patients with non-metastatic adult-type extremity STSs.

METHODS: Patients with non-metastatic adult-type extremity STSs were identified from the 1998-2012 National Cancer Database. Factors affecting amputation were examined across all ages and separately in adults (> 40 years), adolescent/young adults (AYA: ages 15-39), and children (age < 15). Impact on 10-year overall survival (OS) was explored.

RESULTS: Of 15,886 patients, 4.65% had an amputation. AYAs had the most amputations (6.4%) compared to children (5.9%) and adults (4.2%) (p < 0.001). Patients with public insurance (OR 1.3, CI 1.08-1.58) and from central states (OR 1.5, CI 1.2-1.86) were more likely to undergo amputation, whereas those from high income brackets (OR 0.8, CI 0.62-0.94) and treated at community cancer centers were less likely (OR 0.7, CI 0.62-0.90). Amputation was an independent risk factor for death at 10 years, with the greatest impact in AYAs compared to older adults (HR 1.7, p < 0.001). Treatment in eastern or central states, lower income, lack of private insurance, and comorbidities were all associated with decreased OS (all p < 0.05). Female gender (HR 0.8, CI 0.78-0.89) and high-volume centers (HR 0.8, CI 0.74-0.94) were associated with improved OS.

CONCLUSIONS: Although amputations for extremity STSs are rare, disparities exist across age groups, insurance and geography when it comes to the use of amputation in patients with extremity STSs. Moreover, having an amputation is an independent risk factor for death, with the greatest impact in AYAs.

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