New supplemental landmark for the greater palatine foramen as found deep to soft tissue: application for the greater palatine nerve block.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA


Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anatomic Landmarks; Anesthesia, Dental; Cadaver; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nerve Block; Palate, Hard; Anatomic landmark; Anatomy; Cadaver; Hard palate; Nerve block


PURPOSE: Many researches have investigated the morphology of the greater palatine foramina using dry skulls and cone-beam computed tomography. In most studies, some structures in the hard tissue have been measured and statistically analyzed. However, none of the studies has analyzed this foramen in regard to its location with overlying soft tissues, which is so clinically relevant. Therefore, this study was performed to provide the knowledge about relationship between the greater palatine foramen and foveola palatina for a better understanding of dental procedures such as greater palatine nerve block.

METHODS: Thirty sides, from fifteen fresh cadaveric heads, were used in this study. The specimens were derived from eight males and seven females. A 27-gauge needle was inserted into the fossa, which was palpated at the edge of a dental mirror at a 45° angle to the occlusal plane and parallel to the sagittal plane. The anteroposterior distance, which was parallel to the midline, between the penetration site and foveola palatina was measured.

RESULTS: All the penetrations advanced to the greater palatine foramen. The distances ranged from 2.0 to 8.3 mm on right sides, and 1.1 to 8.2 mm on left sides, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study could help dentists identify the correct location of the greater palatine foramen with a supplemental landmark.

Clinical Institute

Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)




Pathology & Laboratory Medicine