Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Biomark Res


AML; Acute myeloid leukemia; Biomarkers; ELN; Elderly; European LeukemiaNet guidelines; Mathematical modeling; Model development and validation; Prognostic factors


Background: The recently updated European LeukemiaNet risk stratification guidelines combine cytogenetic abnormalities and genetic mutations to provide the means to triage patients with acute myeloid leukemia for optimal therapies. Despite the identification of many prognostic factors, relatively few have made their way into clinical practice.

Methods: In order to assess and improve the performance of the European LeukemiaNet guidelines, we developed novel prognostic models using the biomarkers from the guidelines, age, performance status and select transcript biomarkers. The models were developed separately for mononuclear cells and viable leukemic blasts from previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia patients (discovery cohort,

Results: Models using European LeukemiaNet guidelines were significantly associated with clinical outcomes and, therefore, utilized as a baseline for comparisons. Models incorporating age and expression of select transcripts with biomarkers from European LeukemiaNet guidelines demonstrated higher area under the curve and C-statistics but did not show a substantial improvement in performance in the validation cohort. Subset analyses demonstrated that models using only the European LeukemiaNet guidelines were a better fit for younger patients (age < 55) than for older patients. Models integrating age and European LeukemiaNet guidelines visually showed more separation between risk groups in older patients. Models excluding results for

Conclusions: While European LeukemiaNet guidelines remain a critical tool for triaging patients with acute myeloid leukemia, the findings illustrate the need for additional prognostic factors, including age, to improve risk stratification.

Clinical Institute



Earle A. Chiles Research Institute



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