18 F-FDG PET/CT versus anatomic imaging for evaluating disease extent and clinical trial eligibility in Erdheim-Chester disease: results from 50 patients in a registry study

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European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging


Objectives: The aim of this study was to [1] characterize distribution of Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD) by 18F-FDG PET/CT and [2] determine the utility of metabolic (18F-FDG PET/CT) imaging versus anatomic imaging (CT or MRI) in evaluating ECD patients for clinical trial eligibility.

Methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT and corresponding CT or MRI studies for ECD patients enrolled in a prospective registry study were reviewed. Sites of disease were classified as [1] detectable by 18F-FDG PET only, CT/MRI only, or both and as [2] measurable by modified PERCIST (mPERCIST) only, RECIST only, or both. Descriptive analysis was performed and paired t test for between-group comparisons.

Results: Fifty patients were included (mean age 51.5 years; range 18-70 years). Three hundred thirty-three disease sites were detected among all imaging modalities, 188 (56%) by both 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI, 67 (20%) by 18F-FDG PET only, 75 (23%) by MRI brain only, and 3 (1%) by CT only. Of 178 disease sites measurable by mPERCIST or RECIST, 40 (22%) were measurable by both criteria, 136 (76%) by mPERCIST only, and 2 (1%) by RECIST only. On the patient level, 17 (34%) had mPERCIST and RECIST measurable disease, 30 (60%) had mPERCIST measurable disease only, and 0 had RECIST measurable disease only (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Compared with anatomic imaging, 18F-FDG PET/CT augments evaluation of disease extent in ECD and increases identification of disease sites measurable by formal response criteria and therefore eligibility for clinical trials. Complementary organ-specific anatomic imaging offers the capacity to characterize sites of disease in greater anatomic detail.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03329274.


Diagnostic Imaging