Potential implications of DMET ontogeny on the disposition of commonly prescribed drugs in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units.

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Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol


Introduction: Pediatric patients, especially neonates and infants, are more susceptible to adverse drug events as compared to adults. In particular, immature small molecule drug metabolism and excretion can result in higher incidences of pediatric toxicity than adults if the pediatric dose is not adjusted. Area covered: We reviewed the top 29 small molecule drugs prescribed in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units and compiled the mechanisms of their metabolism and excretion. The ontogeny of Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs), particularly relevant to these drugs, are summarized. The potential effects of DMET ontogeny on the metabolism and excretion of the top pediatric drugs were predicted. The current regulatory requirements and recommendations regarding safe and effective use of drugs in children are discussed. A few representative examples of the use of ontogeny-informed physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are highlighted. Expert opinion: Empirical prediction of pediatric drug dosing based on body weight or body-surface area from the adult parameters can be inaccurate because DMETs are not mature in children and the age-dependent maturation of these proteins is different. Ontogeny-informed-PBPK modeling provides a better alternative to predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs in children.

Clinical Institute

Women & Children