Dabigatran etexilate for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism in children (DIVERSITY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 2b/3, non-inferiority trial.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Lancet Haematol


washington; spokane; PSHMC; Acute Disease; Administration, Oral; Adolescent; Anticoagulants; Child; Child, Preschool; Dabigatran; Disease-Free Survival; Female; Humans; Infant; Male; Survival Rate; Venous Thromboembolism


BACKGROUND: Dabigatran etexilate is a direct oral anticoagulant with potential to overcome the limitations of standard of care in children with venous thromboembolism. The aims of this clinical trial were to study the appropriateness of a paediatric dabigatran dosing algorithm, and the efficacy and safety of dabigatran dosed according to that algorithm versus standard of care in treating children with venous thromboembolism.

METHODS: DIVERSITY is a randomised, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, phase 2b/3 non-inferiority trial done in 65 centres in 26 countries. Standard of care (low-molecular-weight heparins, unfractionated heparin, vitamin K antagonists or fondaparinux) was compared with a paediatric oral dabigatran dosing regimen (an age-adjusted and weight-adjusted nomogram) in children younger than 18 years with acute venous thromboembolism initially treated (5-21 days) with parenteral anticoagulation, requiring anticoagulation therapy for at least 3 months. Patients were randomised 1:2 (standard of care:dabigatran) and stratified by age (12 to <18 >years, 2 to <12 >years, and birth to <2 >years) via interactive response technology. The primary composite efficacy endpoint (intention-to-treat analysis) was the proportion of children with complete thrombus resolution, and freedom from recurrent venous thromboembolism and venous thromboembolism-related death. A non-inferiority margin of absolute differences of 20% was used. Secondary endpoints included safety (determined by major bleeding events [time-to-event analysis on the treated set]), and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships (descriptive analyses). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01895777 and is completed.

FINDINGS: 328 children were enrolled between Feb 18, 2014, and Nov 14, 2019. 267 were randomly assigned (90 [34%] to standard of care and 177 [66%] to dabigatran) and included in the analyses. Median exposure to standard of care was 85·0 days (IQR 80·0-90·0) and to dabigatran was 84·5 days (78·0-89·0). Similar proportions of children treated with standard of care and dabigatran met the composite efficacy endpoint (38 [42%] of 90 vs 81 [46%] of 177; Mantel-Haenszel weighted difference, -0·04; 90% CI -0·14 to 0·07; p

INTERPRETATION: An age-adjusted and weight-adjusted dabigatran dosing algorithm was appropriate in children aged birth to less than 18 years with venous thromboembolism. Dabigatran was non-inferior to standard of care in terms of efficacy, with similar pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships as those seen in adults, and might be a suitable alternative to standard of care.

FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.

Clinical Institute

Kidney & Diabetes

Clinical Institute

Women & Children