Cost-effectiveness of Hypertension Treatment by Pharmacists in Black Barbershops.

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diversity/inclusion; california; santa monica; psjhc; jwci



Background: In the Los Angeles Barbershop Blood Pressure Study (LABBPS), pharmacist-led hypertension care in Los Angeles County Black-owned barbershops significantly improved blood pressure control in non-Hispanic Black men with uncontrolled hypertension at baseline. In this analysis, 10-year health outcomes and healthcare costs of one year of the LABBPS intervention versus control are projected. Methods: A discrete event simulation of hypertension care processes projected blood pressure, medication-related adverse events, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease events, and non-cardiovascular disease death in LABBPS participants. Program costs, total direct healthcare costs (2019 USD), and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated for the LABBPS intervention and control arms from a healthcare sector perspective over a 10-year horizon. Future costs and QALYs were discounted 3% annually. High and intermediate cost-effectiveness thresholds were defined as <$50,000 and <$150,000 per QALY gained, respectively. Results: At 10 years, the intervention was projected to cost an average of $2,356 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] -$264-$4,611) more per participant than the control arm and gain 0.06 (95% UI 0.01-0.10) QALYs. The LABBPS intervention was highly cost-effective, with a mean cost of $42,717 per QALY gained (58% probability of being highly and 96% of being at least intermediately cost-effective). Exclusive use of generic drugs improved the cost-effectiveness to $17,162 per QALY gained. The LABBPS intervention would be only intermediately cost effective if pharmacists were less likely to intensify antihypertensive medications when systolic blood pressure was ≥150 mmHg or if pharmacist weekly time driving to barbershops increased. Conclusions: Hypertension care delivered by clinical pharmacists in Black barbershops is a highly cost-effective way to improve blood pressure control in Black men.

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)


Population Health