Cardiovascular Procedural Deferral and Outcomes over COVID-19 Pandemic Phases: A Multi-Center Study.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

American heart journal


2019-nCoV; cards; cards publication; oregon; portland; washington; renton


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine cardiovascular care, with unclear impact on procedural deferrals and associated outcomes across diverse patient populations.

METHODS: Cardiovascular procedures performed at 30 hospitals across six Western states in two large, non-profit healthcare systems (Providence St. Joseph Health and Stanford Healthcare) from December 2018-June 2020 were analyzed for changes over time. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was compared across pandemic phases with multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS: Among 36,125 procedures (69% percutaneous coronary intervention, 13% coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 10% transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and 8% surgical aortic valve replacement), weekly volumes changed in two distinct phases after the initial inflection point on February 23, 2020: an initial period of significant deferral (COVID I: March 15 to April 11) followed by recovery (COVID II: April 12 onwards). Compared to pre-COVID, COVID I patients were less likely to be female (p=0.0003), older (p

CONCLUSIONS: Significant decreases in cardiovascular procedural volumes occurred early in the COVID-19 pandemic, with disproportionate impacts by race, gender, and age. These findings should inform our approach to future healthcare disruptions.

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)




Center for Cardiovascular Analytics, Research + Data Science (CARDS)