Acetylated DNMT1 Downregulation and Related Regulatory Factors Influence Metastatic Melanoma Patients Survival.

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Cancers (Basel)


california; santa monica; jwci; sjci


The role of post-translational modifications (PTM) of the key epigenetic factor DNMT1 protein has not been well explored in cutaneous metastatic melanoma progression. The acetylated DNMT1 (ac-DNMT1) protein level was assessed using an anti-acetylated lysine antibody in a clinically annotated melanoma patient tumor specimen cohort. In this study, we showed that surgically resected tumors have significantly higher DNMT1 protein expression in metastatic melanoma (stage III metastasis n = 17, p = 0.0009; stage IV metastasis n = 164, p = 0.003) compared to normal organ tissues (n = 19). Additionally, reduced ac-DNMT1 protein levels were associated with melanoma progression. There was a significant inverse correlation between ac-DNMT1 and DNMT1 protein levels in stage IV metastatic melanoma (r = -0.18, p = 0.02, n = 164). Additionally, ac-DNMT1 protein levels were also significantly positively correlated with TIP60 (r = 0.6, p < 0.0001) and USP7 (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) protein levels in stage IV metastatic melanoma (n = 164). Protein analysis in metastatic melanoma tumor tissues showed that with high ac-DNMT1 (p = 0.006, n = 59), or concurrent high ac-DNMT1 with low DNMT1 (p = 0.05, n = 27), or high TIP60 (p = 0.007, n = 41), or high USP7 (p = 0.01, n = 48) consistently showed better 4-year melanoma-specific survival (MSS). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that ac-DNMT1 level is a significant independent factor associated with MSS (HR, 0.994; 95% confidential interval (CI), 0.990-0.998; p = 0.002). These results demonstrated that low ac-DNMT1 levels may represent an important regulatory factor in controlling metastatic melanoma progression and a promising factor for stratifying aggressive stage IV metastasis.

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