Compassionate-use pocapavir and immunoglobulin therapy for treatment of rituximab-associated enterovirus meningoencephalitis.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of neurovirology


washington; swedish neuro; seattle; Antiviral therapy; Enterovirus; Immunotherapy; Meningoencephalitis


A 71-year-old woman previously on rituximab treatment for rheumatoid arthritis presented with 2 years of progressive neurologic symptoms. She was found to have persistent hypogammaglobulinemia and B cell depletion despite rituximab discontinuation a year prior. MRI revealed diffuse meningeal enhancement along the entire neuroaxis. LP showed a CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevated protein, and presence of enterovirus by PCR. The patient was hospitalized several times for progressive clinical and radiologic decline, though she had transient improvements following treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. Her CSF remained positive for enterovirus PCR for at least 12 months. Though two brain biopsies were non-diagnostic, pan-Enterovirus was ultimately identified using a high-throughput next-generation sequencing technique. She was treated with compassionate-use pocapavir with clinical stabilization at 4-month follow-up; however, she expired 8 months later from a bacterial pneumonia.

Clinical Institute

Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)