Correlates of 90-Day Mortality Among People Who Do and Do Not Inject Drugs With Infective Endocarditis in Seattle, Washington.

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Publication Date


Publication Title

Open Forum Infect Dis


oregon; portland


Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains highly morbid, but few studies have evaluated factors associated with IE mortality. We examined correlates of 90-day mortality among people who inject drugs (PWID) and people who do not inject drugs (non-PWID).

Methods: We queried the electronic medical record for cases of IE among adults ≥18 years of age at 2 academic medical centers in Seattle, Washington, from 1 January 2014 to 31 July 2019. Cases were reviewed to confirm a diagnosis of IE and drug use status. Deaths were confirmed through the Washington State death index. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize IE in PWID and non-PWID. Kaplan-Meier log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess correlates of 90-day mortality.

Results: We identified 507 patients with IE, 213 (42%) of whom were PWID. Sixteen percent of patients died within 90 days of admission, including 14% of PWID and 17% of non-PWID (

Conclusions: Overall 90-day mortality did not differ between PWID and non-PWID with IE, although PWID experienced a higher risk of death within 14 days of admission. These findings suggest that early IE diagnosis and treatment among PWID is critical to improving outcomes.

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)

Clinical Institute

Mental Health




Behavioral Health