Cerebral Regional Tissue Oxygenation as Surrogate for Blood Loss in Nonhuman Primate Models of Shock.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

The Journal of surgical research


washington; everett; prmc


Introduction: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death, with a majority of mortalities in the prehospital setting. Current hemorrhage resuscitation guidelines cannot predict the critical point of intervention to activate massive transfusion (MT) and prevent cardiovascular decompensation. We hypothesized that cerebral regional tissue oxygenation (CrSO2) would indicate MT need in nonhuman primate models of hemorrhagic shock.

Methods: Nineteen anesthetized male rhesus macaques underwent hemorrhage via a volume-targeted (VT) or pressure-targeted (PT) method. VT animals were monitored for 30 min following 30% blood volume hemorrhage. PT animals were hemorrhaged to mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 20 mmHg and maintained for at least 60 min until decompensation. Statistics for MAP, heart rate (HR), end tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), and CrSO2 were analyzed via one- or two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, Pearson's R, and receiver-operator curve. A P < 0.05 is considered significant.

Results: Following initial hemorrhage (S0), there were no significant differences between groups. After cessation of hemorrhage in the VT group, MAP and EtCO2 returned to baseline while CrSO2 plateaued. The PT group maintained model-defined low MAP, suppressing EtCO2, and significantly decreased CrSO2 compared to the VT group by S25. Linear regression of CrSO2versus shed blood volume demonstrated R2 = 0.7539. CrSO2 of 47% was able to detect >40% blood loss with an area under the curve of 0.9834 at 92.3% (66.7%-99.6%) sensitivity and 95.5% (84.9%-99.2%) specificity.

Conclusions: Regardless of hemorrhage modality and compensatory response, CrSO2 correlated strongly with shed blood volume. Analysis demonstrated that CrSO2 values below 49% indicate Advanced Trauma Life Support class IV shock (blood loss>40%). CrSO2 at the point of care may help indicate MT need earlier and more accurately than traditional markers.

Keywords: Decompensation; Hemorrhage; Noninvasive; Prehospital; rSO(2).

Clinical Institute

Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)