Reconsidering the in vivo functions of Clostridial Stickland amino acid fermentations.

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washington; isb; Amino Acids; Clostridium; Fermentation; Glycine; Proline


Stickland amino acid fermentations occur primarily among species of Clostridia. An ancient form of metabolism, Stickland fermentations use amino acids as electron acceptors in the absence of stronger oxidizing agents and provide metabolic capabilities to support growth when other fermentable substrates, such as carbohydrates, are lacking. The reactions were originally described as paired fermentations of amino acid electron donors, such as the branched-chain amino acids, with recipients that include proline and glycine. We present a redox-focused view of Stickland metabolism following electron flow through metabolically diverse oxidative reactions and the defined-substrate reductase systems, including for proline and glycine, and the role of dual redox pathways for substrates such as leucine and ornithine. Genetic studies and Environment and Gene Regulatory Interaction Network (EGRIN) models for the pathogen Clostridioides difficile have improved our understanding of the regulation and metabolic recruitment of these systems, and their functions in modulating inter-species interactions within host-pathogen-commensal systems and uses in industrial and environmental applications.


Institute for Systems Biology


Pathology & Laboratory Medicine