The impact of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination on maternal-fetal outcomes.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)


washington; covid-19; isb


The rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an upsurge of scientific productivity to help address the global health crisis. One area of active research is the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy. Here, we provide an epidemiological overview about what is known about the effects of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination on maternal-fetal outcomes, and identify gaps in knowledge. Pregnant people are at increased risk for severe COVID-19, and maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the risk of negative maternal-fetal outcomes. Despite this elevated risk, there have been high rates of vaccine hesitancy, heightened by the initial lack of safety and efficacy data for COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy. In response, retrospective cohort studies were performed to examine the impact of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. Here, we report the vaccine's efficacy during pregnancy and its impact on maternal-fetal outcomes, as well as an overview of initial studies on booster shots in pregnancy. We found that pregnant people are at risk for more severe COVID-19 outcomes, maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with worse birth outcomes, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy remains prevalent in the pregnant population, and COVID-19 vaccination and boosters promote better maternal-fetal outcomes. The results should help reduce vaccine hesitancy by alleviating concerns about the safety and efficacy of administering the COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy. Overall, this review provides an introduction to COVID-19 during pregnancy. It is expected to help consolidate current knowledge, accelerate research of COVID-19 during pregnancy and inform clinical, policy, and research decisions regarding COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant people.

Clinical Institute

Women & Children


Institute for Systems Biology


Obstetrics & Gynecology


Infectious Diseases