Improving the Diagnostic Yield of High-Resolution Esophageal Manometry for GERD: The "Straight Leg-Raise" International Study.

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Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association


washington; swedish; swedish thoracic; swedish dhi


BACKGROUND & AIMS: The straight leg raise (SLR) maneuver during high-resolution manometry (HRM) can assess esophagogastric junction (EGJ) barrier function by measuring changes in intraesophageal pressure (IEP) when intra-abdominal pressure is increased. We aimed to determine whether increased esophageal pressure during SLR predicts pathologic esophageal acid exposure time (AET).

METHODS: Adult patients with persistent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms undergoing HRM and pH-impedance or wireless pH study off proton pump inhibitor were prospectively studied between July 2021 and March 2022. After the HRM Chicago 4.0 protocol, patients were requested to elevate 1 leg at 45º for 5 seconds while supine. The SLR maneuver was considered effective when intra-abdominal pressure increased by 50%. IEPs were recorded 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter at baseline and during SLR. GERD was defined as AET greater than 6%.

RESULTS: The SLR was effective in 295 patients (81%), 115 (39%) of whom had an AET greater than 6%. Hiatal hernia (EGJ type 2 or 3) was seen in 135 (46%) patients. Compared with patients with an AET less than 6%, peak IEP during SLR was significantly higher in the GERD group (29.7 vs 13.9 mm Hg; P < .001). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, an increase of 11 mm Hg of peak IEP from baseline during SLR was the optimal cut-off value to predict an AET greater than 6% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.84; sensitivity, 79%; and specificity, 85%), regardless of the presence of hiatal hernia. On multivariable analysis, an IEP pressure increase during the SLR maneuver, EGJ contractile integral, EGJ subtype 2, and EGJ subtype 3, were found to be significant predictors of AET greater than 6% CONCLUSIONS: The SLR maneuver can predict abnormal an AET, thereby increasing the diagnostic value of HRM when GERD is suspected.


Clinical Institute

Digestive Health




Swedish Digestive Health Institute