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Life (Basel)


washington; isb; genomics


Phylogenetic relationships among Cebidae species of platyrrhine primates are presently under debate. Studies prior to whole genome sequence (WGS) availability utilizing unidirectional Alu repeats linked Callithrix and Saguinus as sister taxa, based on a limited number of genetic markers and specimens, while the relative positions of Cebus, Saimiri and Aotus remained controversial. Multiple WGS allowed computational detection of Alu-genome junctions, however random mutation and evolutionary decay of these short-read segments prevented phylogenetic resolution. In this study, WGS for four Cebidae genomes of marmoset, squirrel monkey, owl monkey and capuchin were analyzed for full-length Alu elements and each locus was compared to the other three genomes in all possible combinations using orthologous region sequence alignments. Over 2000 candidates were aligned and subjected to visual inspection. Approximately 34% passed inspection and were considered shared in their respective category, 48% failed due to the target being present in all four genomes, having N's in the sequence or other sequence quality anomalies, and 18% were determined to represent near parallel insertions (NP). Wet bench locus specific PCR confirmed the presence of shared Alu insertions in all phylogenetically informative categories, providing evidence of extensive incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and an abundance of Alu proliferation during the complex radiation of Cebidae taxa.


Institute for Systems Biology