Head-Mounted Augmented Reality in the Planning of Cerebrovascular Neurosurgical Procedures: A Single-Center Initial Experience.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

World Neurosurg


washington; swedish


BACKGROUND: Augmented reality (AR) technology has played an increasing role in cerebrovascular neurosurgery over the last 2 decades. Hence, we aim to evaluate the technical and educational value of head-mounted AR in cerebrovascular procedures.

METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective study of patients who underwent open surgery for cranial and spinal cerebrovascular lesions between April and August 2022. In all cases, the Medivis Surgical AR platform and HoloLens 2 were used for preoperative and intraoperative (preincision) planning. Surgical plan adjustment due to the use of head-mounted AR and subjective educational value of the tool were recorded.

RESULTS: A total of 33 patients and 35 cerebrovascular neurosurgical procedures were analyzed. Procedures included 12 intracranial aneurysm clippings, 6 brain and 1 spinal arteriovenous malformation resections, 2 cranial dural arteriovenous fistula obliterations, 3 carotid endarterectomies, two extracranial-intracranial direct bypasses, two encephaloduroangiosynostosis for Moyamoya disease, 1 biopsy of the superficial temporal artery, 2 microvascular decompressions, 2 cavernoma resections, 1 combined intracranial aneurysm clipping and encephaloduroangiosynostosis for Moyamoya disease, and 1 percutaneous feeder catheterization for arteriovenous malformation embolization. Minor changes in the surgical plan were recorded in 16 of 35 procedures (45.7%). Subjective educational value was scored as "very helpful" for cranial, spinal arteriovenous malformations, and carotid endarterectomies; "helpful" for intracranial aneurysm, dural arteriovenous fistulas, direct bypass, encephaloduroangiosynostosis, and superficial temporal artery-biopsy; and "not helpful" for cavernoma resection and microvascular decompression.

CONCLUSIONS: Head-mounted AR can be used in cerebrovascular neurosurgery as an adjunctive tool that might influence surgical strategy, enable 3-dimensional understanding of complex anatomy, and provide great educational value in selected cases.

Clinical Institute

Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)