The risk for chronic kidney disease in metabolically healthy obese patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Publication Date


Publication Title

European journal of clinical investigation


washington; spokane; prmc


BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, the association of CKD with phenotype referred as metabolically healthy obese or overweight is unclear. In this this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigate the relationships between obesity and CKD independent of metabolic syndrome by appraising published evidence in studies focusing on metabolically healthy obese people.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a literature search through three databases Embase (Elsevier), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley) and PubMed/Medline Web of Science up to March 2022 with the following terms: "chronic kidney disease", "kidney function", "obesity", "metabolic syndrome", "metabolically healthy obesity", "metabolically healthy overweight". Metabolically unhealthy was defined an individual having at least 3 of the following: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol and hyperglycaemia. We used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for reporting. Prospective, retrospective, randomized and nonrandomized studies fitting the search criteria were included in our results.

RESULTS: Our final analysis included 16 studies with a total number of 4.965.285 participants. There is considerable heterogeneity in terms of study design, participant characteristics and number of participants across individual studies. In comparison to healthy normal weight patients, the risk was progressively higher in overweight (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.32, p < 0.001) and obese patients (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.65, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Metabolically healthy overweight and obese individuals have higher risk of CKD compared to individuals without weight excess.

Clinical Institute

Kidney & Diabetes

Clinical Institute

Digestive Health