Atraumatic vertebral arteriovenous fistula: A rare entity with two case reports.

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Abstract; Vertebral artery fistula; embolization; neurofibromatosis; spontaneous arteriovenous fistula; Adult; Arteriovenous Fistula/complications; Arteriovenous Fistula/diagnostic imaging; Arteriovenous Fistula/therapy; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Middle Aged; Neurofibromatosis 1/complications; Vertebral Artery/abnormalities


BACKGROUND: A vertebral artery arteriovenous fistula is rare and usually due to trauma. Atraumatic cases are quite rare. Herein, two cases and a review of other reports from the literature are presented.

CASE DESCRIPTIONS: A spontaneous vertebral-venous fistula is rare, and the two case reports discussed illustrate an underlying spontaneous etiology. The first case presented with a spontaneous fistula, while the second case was in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. In both cases, the fistulas were diagnosed with CTA and treated with occlusion via coil embolization.

CONCLUSIONS: Vascular changes are known in patients with neurofibromatosis, a proposed pathogenesis of fistula is that the fragility and defective nature of the arterial wall may be a predisposing factor or it may be congenital. Understanding the clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and effective management strategies are important to physicians treating patients with a vertebral artery arteriovenous fistula.

Clinical Institute

Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)