Prolonged Survival of NUT Midline Carcinoma and Current Approaches to Treatment.

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The oncologist


washington; swedish; swedish cancer


NUT midline carcinoma is a rare malignancy most commonly seen in adolescents and young adults. The disease presents most often in the lung or head and neck area but can be seen occasionally elsewhere. The diagnosis can be difficult and requires a high degree of suspicion with demonstration of the classic fusion rearrangement mutation of the NUTM1 gene with one of a variety of partners by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization, or genomic analysis. Survival is usually only a number of months with few long-term survivors. Here we report one of the longest-known survivors of this disease treated with surgery and radiation without additional therapy. Systemic treatment approaches including the use of chemotherapy and BET and histone deacetylase inhibitors have yielded modest results. Further studies of these, as well as p300 and CDK9 inhibitors and combinations of BET inhibitors with chemotherapy or CDK 4/6 inhibitors, are being evaluated. Recent reports suggest there may be a role for immune checkpoint inhibitors, even in the absence of high tumor mutation burden or PD-L1 positivity. RNA sequencing of this patient's tumor demonstrated overexpression of multiple potentially targetable genes. Given the altered transcription that results from the causative mutation multi-omic evaluation of these tumors may uncover druggable targets for treatment.

Clinical Institute