Liquid biopsies and minimal residual disease in myeloid malignancies.
Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment through blood component sampling by liquid biopsies (LBs) is increasingly being investigated in myeloid malignancies. Blood components then undergo molecular analysis by flow cytometry or sequencing techniques and can be used as a powerful tool for prognostic and predictive purposes in myeloid malignancies. There is evidence and more is evolving about the quantification and identification of cell-based and gene-based biomarkers in myeloid malignancies to monitor treatment response. MRD based acute myeloid leukemia protocol and clinical trials are currently incorporating LB testing and preliminary results are encouraging for potential widespread use in clinic in the near future. MRD monitoring using LBs are not standard in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) but this is an area of active investigation. In the future, LBs can replace more invasive techniques such as bone marrow biopsies. However, the routine clinical application of these markers continues to be an issue due to lack of standardization and limited number of studies investigating their specificities. Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) could help simplify the complex interpretation of molecular testing and reduce errors related to operator dependency. Though the field is rapidly evolving, the applicability of MRD testing using LB is mostly limited to research setting at this time due to the need for validation, regulatory approval, payer coverage, and cost issues. This review focuses on the types of biomarkers, most recent research exploring MRD and LB in myeloid malignancies, ongoing clinical trials, and the future of LB in the setting of AI.
Allam, Sabine; Nasr, Kristina; Khalid, Farhan; Shah, Zunairah; Khan Suheb, Mahammed Ziauddin; Mulla, Sana; Vikash, Sindhu; Bou Zerdan, Maroun; Anwer, Faiz; and Chaulagain, Chakra P, "Liquid biopsies and minimal residual disease in myeloid malignancies." (2023). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 7689.