Challenges and opportunities in the development of combination immunotherapy with OX40 agonists.

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Expert opinion on biological therapy


oregon; chiles


INTRODUCTION: Costimulatory members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, such as OX40 (CD134), provide essential survival and differentiation signals that enhance T cell function. Specifically, OX40 (CD134) agonists stimulate potent anti-tumor immunity in a variety of preclinical models but their therapeutic impact in patients with advanced malignancies has been limited thus far.

AREAS COVERED: In this review, we discuss the current state of combination immunotherapy with OX40 agonists including preclinical studies and recent clinical trials. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of these approaches and provide insight into alternatives that may help enhance the efficacy of combination OX40 agonist immunotherapy.

EXPERT OPINION: OX40 agonist immunotherapy has not yet demonstrated significant clinical activity as a monotherapy or in combination with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), likely due to several factors including the timing of administration, drug potency, and selection of agents for combination therapy clinical trials. We believe that careful consideration of the biological mechanisms regulating OX40 expression and function may help inform new approaches, particularly in combination with novel agents, capable of increasing the therapeutic efficacy of this approach.

Clinical Institute



Earle A. Chiles Research Institute