Impact of Pre-Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) Curriculum on Student Pharmacists' Professional Identity Formation.

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American journal of pharmaceutical education


washington; everett; prmc; Humans; Pharmacists; Social Identification; Education, Pharmacy; Students, Pharmacy; Curriculum; Pharmacy


OBJECTIVE: To (1) evaluate changes in student pharmacists' professional identity during a curriculum prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and (2) describe the components of a pre-APPE curriculum that positively and negatively influenced students' professional identity formation (PIF).

METHODS: The University of Washington School of Pharmacy launched a new curriculum in 2019 featuring components intentionally designed to support students' PIF. The Macleod-Clark Professional Identity Scale (MCPIS) was administered to the class of 2023 before starting pharmacy school (pre) and upon completion of the pre-APPE curriculum (post). The postsurvey also contained 2 open-response questions asking students to identify the most positive and negative influences on their PIF. Mean pre- and post-responses were calculated for all MCPIS items and each MCPIS item and compared using paired t tests. Responses to the open-ended questions were sorted into categories using inductive thematic analysis and frequencies were calculated.

RESULTS: A total of 99 students (96%) completed both surveys. Mean MCPIS pre-scores and post-scores were both 3.3, indicating no statistically significant change in professional identity. The most frequently reported positive influences on PIF were didactic coursework (40%), experiential learning (30%), and student organizations (27%). The most frequently reported negative influences were didactic coursework (27%), none (25%), and perceptions of the pharmacy profession (22%).

CONCLUSION: Students' overall professional identity, as measured by the MCPIS, did not change during the pre-APPE curriculum. Didactic coursework had the most common positive and negative influence on professional identity prior to APPEs.


Graduate Medical Education