Novel Technique of Head-Mounted Augmented Reality-Assisted Endovascular Neurosurgery: Proof of Concept on a Flow Model.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

World Neurosurg


washington; swedish; swedish neuro; artificial intelligence


Augmented reality (AR) is an emerging technology in medicine that is underexplored in the endovascular neurosurgery arena. We describe a novel technique integrating the Hololens 2 head-mounted AR (HMAR) system for navigation of the intracranial circulation and simple coiling of an aneurysm silicone model. Computed tomography angiographies (CTAs) of the silicone models were obtained, simulating the preprocedural CTA obtained for patient treatments. CTA was imported into the 3-dimensional (3D) HMAR system, and a 3D hologram of the circulation was created. Using the right common carotid artery run (performed in the silicon model) as a landmark, the AR hologram was superimposed on the angiography screen (Video 1). A 5-French sheath, intermediate catheter, 0.012-inch microcatheter, and microwire were used for the purely navigational model. The same process was repeated with the aneurysm model, which was navigated with a 0.58 intermediate catheter, 0.17 microcatheter, 0.014 microwire, and 6 × 15 3D-shaped soft coil. The proximal and distal vessels of the flow model were successfully navigated using the AR hologram, which replaced the conventional roadmap. No contrast ¨puffs¨ were needed because the hologram replaced the roadmap from proximal to distal vasculature. The silicon navigational model and aneurysm model were successfully navigated using only the AR 3D model. A coil was deployed in the aneurysm model. Finally, a 3D-360-degree examination of the aneurysmal anatomy was possible during the procedure. The concept of HMAR-assisted cerebral angiography is feasible. We were able to perform the whole intracranial navigation using only the preoperative CTA. Additional refinements and fine-tuning of the registration and alignment of the hologram to the silicon model or anatomy of the patient are needed before this technology can be incorporated into clinical practice. In the meantime, the use of this tool for the training and development of endovascular skills offers valuable educational opportunities. Further advances in this direction aiming to create real 3D roadmaps are needed to decrease contrast use, radiation exposure, and navigation times.

Clinical Institute

Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)