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CD8 response, DRibbles, GVAX, immune-monitoring, prostate cancer


The immune system plays an essential role in eradicating cancer in concert with various treatment modalities. In the absence of autologous tumor material, no standardized method exists to assess T cell responses against the many antigens that may serve as cancer rejection antigens. Thus, development of methods to screen for therapy-induced anti-tumor responses is a high priority that could help tailor therapy. Here we tested whether a tumor-derived antigen source called DRibbles®, which contain a pool of defective ribosomal products (DRiPs), long-lived and short-lived proteins (SLiPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), can be used to identify tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-specific responses in patients before or after immunotherapy treatment. Protein content, gene expression and non-synonymous – single nucleotide variants (ns-SNVs) present in UbiLT3 DRibbles were compared with prostate adenocarcinomas and the prostate GVAX vaccine cell lines (PC3/LNCaP). UbiLT3 DRibbles were found to share proteins, as well as match tumor sequences for ns-SNVs with prostate adenocarcinomas and with the cell lines PC3 and LNCaP. UbiLT3 DRibbles were used to monitor anti-tumor responses in patients vaccinated with allogeneic prostate GVAX. UbiLT3-DRibble-reactive CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in post-vaccine PBMC of 6/12 patients (range 0.85–22% of CD8+ cells) after 1 week in vitro stimulation (p = 0.007 vs. pre-vaccine). In conclusion, a cancer-derived autophagosome-enriched preparation, packaging over 100 proteins over-expressed in prostate cancer into microvesicles containing DAMPs, could be used to identify CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood from patients after prostate GVAX vaccination and may represent a general method to monitor anti-cancer T cell responses following immunotherapy.

Clinical Institute







Earle A. Chiles Research Institute

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