A Phase 1/2 Study to Evaluate the Safety and Activity of Nivolumab in Combination With Vorolanib, a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients With Refractory Thoracic Tumors.

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JTO Clin Res Rep


oregon; chiles


INTRODUCTION: Targeting the tumor microenvironment may enhance response to immunotherapy (immune checkpoint inhibitors) and improve outcomes for patients. This study tested the safety and efficacy of vorolanib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and c-KIT, in combination with programmed cell death protein 1 blockade using nivolumab for refractory thoracic malignancies.

METHODS: This single-arm multicenter study enrolled patients with extensive-stage SCLC, thymic carcinoma, and NSCLC, either naive or had progressed on previous chemotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors (either primary or acquired resistance). The primary objective of phase 1 was to determine the maximum tolerated dose, and the primary end point for each dose-expansion cohort was the objective response rate.

RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were enrolled in phase 1 (n = 11) and dose expansion (n = 77) cohorts. Transaminitis was dose-limiting and expansion proceeded with oral vorolanib 200 mg daily combined with intravenous nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks. The objective response rate per cohort were as follows: NSCLC naive 33% (five of 15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13%-60%), NSCLC primary refractory 5.9% (one of 17, 95% CI: 0%-17.6%), NSCLC acquired resistance 11.1% (two of 18, 95% CI: 0%-27.8%); SCLC 0% (zero of 18), and thymic carcinoma 11% (one of nine, 95% CI: 0%-33%). Disease control rate ranged from 11.1% in SCLC (two of 18, 0%-27.8%) to 66.7 % in thymic carcinoma (six of nine, 95% CI: 33.3%-100%). The most common adverse events were fatigue (32%), aspartate transaminase (27%) and alanine transaminase elevation (25%), and diarrhea (19%). Transaminitis was more common in patients with thymic carcinoma than other tumors.

CONCLUSIONS: Vorolanib plus nivolumab had a manageable safety profile and may have clinical benefits in various thoracic malignancies. The disease control rate in thymic malignancies warrants further assessment.

Clinical Institute







Internal Medicine