Bilateral hip DXA Reporting: 2023 Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

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Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of clinical densitometry : the official journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry


Humans; Absorptiometry, Photon; Osteoporosis; Societies, Medical; Bone Density; Hip; Femur; Bilateral Femur; Bone Mineral Density; DXA; Dual Femur; Official Positions; Reporting.; washington; swedish


INTRODUCTION: This position development conference (PDC) Task Force examined the use and reporting of bilateral hip bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. This was deemed appropriate as increased availability of Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) technology offering bilateral hip measurement resulted in more routine clinical use. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry Official Positions accept bilateral hip BMD measurement for clinical use but currently do not include recommendations for reporting those studies.

METHODS: Four key questions regarding bilateral hip reporting were proposed by the PDC Steering Committee. Relevant literature was identified using PubMed. Questions included whether bilateral hip measurements are appropriate for diagnostic classification or monitoring, as well as which bilateral hip regions of interest should be reported for diagnosis and monitoring. Additionally, the appropriate nomenclature for bilateral hip acquisition was defined.

RESULTS: The literature review demonstrated that bilateral hip measurement is appropriate and diagnostic classification should be based on the lowest T-score at the right or left side femoral neck or total hip; the mean T-score should not be used for diagnostic purposes. Mean bilateral total hip is preferred for BMD monitoring. The terms hip, or total hip were deemed appropriate nomenclature instead of femur or total proximal femur.

CONCLUSION: Bilateral hip acquisition is clinically appropriate and reporting and nomenclature standards are offered herein when a bilateral hip study is acquired. In terms of future research, the impact of discordant hips on diagnosis and monitoring was identified as a significant knowledge gap.

Clinical Institute

Orthopedics & Sports Medicine