Reporting of Full-Length Femur Imaging to Detect Incomplete Atypical Femur Fractures: 2023 Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of clinical densitometry : the official journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry


Humans; Bone Density; Societies, Medical; Absorptiometry, Photon; Femur; Lower Extremity; Atypical femur fracture; Beaking; DXA; Lucent line; Official positions; RADS; Reporting.; washington; swedish


Incomplete atypical femur fractures (iAFFs) are associated with the long-term use of anti-resorptive therapies. Although X-rays are typically used to screen for iAFFs, images from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) offer an alternate method for detecting iAFFs. Although a previous 2019 ISCD Official Position on this subject exists, our task force aimed to update the literature review and to propose recommendations on reporting findings related to iAFFs that may be observed on DXA images. The task force recommended that full-length femur imaging (FFI) from DXA can be used as a screening tool for iAFFs. The presence of focal lateral cortical thickening and transverse lucencies should be reported, if identified on the FFI. This task force proposed a classification system to determine the likelihood of an iAFF, based on radiographic features seen on the FFI. Lastly, the task force recommended that the clinical assessment of prodromal symptoms (pain) is not required for the assessment of FFI.

Clinical Institute

Orthopedics & Sports Medicine




Sports Medicine