Translating Pressure Into Practice: Operational Characteristics of Ambulatory Hemodynamic Monitoring Program in the United States.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of cardiac failure


oregon; cards; cards publication; Humans; United States; Hemodynamic Monitoring; Heart Failure; Monitoring, Ambulatory; Hemodynamics; Heart Transplantation; Pulmonary Artery; Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory


BACKGROUND: Ambulatory hemodynamic monitoring (AHM) using an implantable pulmonary artery pressure sensor (CardioMEMS) is effective in improving outcomes for patients with heart failure. The operations of AHM programs are crucial to clinical efficacy of AHM yet have not been described.

METHODS AND RESULTS: An anonymous, voluntary, web-based survey was developed and emailed to clinicians at AHM centers in the United States. Survey questions were related to program volume, staffing, monitoring practices, and patient selection criteria. Fifty-four respondents (40%) completed the survey. Respondents were 44% (n = 24) advanced HF cardiologists and 30% (n = 16) advanced nurse practitioners. Most respondents practice at a center that implants left ventricular assist devices (70%) or performs heart transplantation (54%). Advanced practice providers provide day-to-day monitoring and management in most programs (78%), and use of protocol-driven care is limited (28%). Perceived patient nonadherence and inadequate insurance coverage are cited as the primary barriers to AHM.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite broad US Food and Drug Administration approval for patients with symptoms and at increased risk for worsening heart failure, the adoption of pulmonary artery pressure monitoring is concentrated at advanced heart failure centers, and modest numbers of patients are implanted at most centers. Understanding and addressing the barriers to referral of eligible patients and to broader adoption in community heart failure programs is needed to maximize the clinical benefits of AHM.

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)




Internal Medicine