Outcomes with guideline-directed medical therapy and cardiac implantable electronic device therapies for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

Document Type


Publication Date


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Heart Rhythm O2


washington; swedish


BACKGROUND: Limited real-world evidence exists for outcomes with contemporary guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) or GDMT with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%.

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess survival associated with GDMT or GDMT with ICD/CRT-D therapy.

METHODS: This retrospective observational study included real-world de-identified data from January 1, 2016, to December 19, 2023, from 24 U.S. institutions per participating institutional agreements (egnite Database; egnite, Inc.). Patients with a diagnosis of HFrEF and an echocardiographic study documenting LVEF ≤35% were included for analysis.

RESULTS: Of 43,591 patients with eligible index event of LVEF ≤35%, prescription history through ≥1 year preindex, and no ICD/CRT-D therapy preindex, mean ± standard deviation age at index was 71.2 ± 13.2 years; 14,805 (34.0%) patients were female. At 24 months, an estimated 99.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 99.0%-99.2%), 89.9% (95% CI 89.7%-90.1%), 54.8% (95% CI 54.4%-55.2%), and 17.2% (95% CI 16.9%-17.5%), had ≥1, 2, 3, or all 4 GDMT classes prescribed, respectively; an estimated 15.7% (95% CI 15.3%-16.1%) had device placement. Of those without a device, by 24 months, an estimated 45.1% (95% CI 44.4%-45.7%) had a documented LVEF >35%. Counts of GDMT classes prescribed as well as ICD/CRT-D device therapy were associated with lower mortality risk in this population, even after adjustment for patient age, sex, and comorbidities.

CONCLUSION: Both GDMT classes prescribed and device therapy were independently associated with lower mortality risk, even in the presence of more GDMT options for this more contemporary population.

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)