Anatomical complications of epidural anesthesia: A comprehensive review.
Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)
Anesthesia, Epidural; Anesthetics, Local; Bupivacaine; Embolism, Air; Hematoma; Humans; Injections, Epidural; Lidocaine; Low Back Pain; Spinal Nerves
Epidural anesthesia is a versatile technique widely used in treating lumbar spinal pain syndromes. Complications during these procedures can arise either from needle placement or from administration of medication. Potential risks include infection, hematoma, intravascular or subdural injections of medication, direct nerve trauma, air embolism, entry into a disc space, urinary retention, radiation exposure, and hypersensitivity reactions. The objective of this article is to review the complications of lumbar epidural injections and discuss the potential pitfalls related to these procedures. We searched Medline comprehensively for relevant case reports, clinical trials, and review articles. Complications from lumbar epidural injections are extremely rare. Most if not all of them can be avoided by careful techniques with accurate needle placement, sterile precautions, and a thorough understanding of the relevant anatomy and contrast patterns on fluoroscopic imaging. Clin. Anat. 30:342-346, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)
Maddali, Prasanthi; Moisi, Marc; Page, Jeni; Chamiraju, Parthasarathi; Fisahn, Christian; Oskouian, Rod; and Tubbs, R Shane, "Anatomical complications of epidural anesthesia: A comprehensive review." (2017). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 2415.