Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Electrocardiography for Early Diagnosis of Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

J Endocr Soc


oregon; portland; psvmc


Context: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) characterized by acute weakness, hypokalemia, and hyperthyroidism is a medical emergency with a great challenge in early diagnosis since most TPP patients do not have overt symptoms.

Objective: This work aims to assess artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted electrocardiography (ECG) combined with routine laboratory data in the early diagnosis of TPP.

Methods: A deep learning model (DLM) based on ECG12Net, an 82-layer convolutional neural network, was constructed to detect hypokalemia and hyperthyroidism. The development cohort consisted of 39 ECGs from patients with TPP and 502 ECGs of hypokalemic controls; the validation cohort consisted of 11 ECGs of TPP patients and 36 ECGs of non-TPP individuals with weakness. The AI-ECG-based TPP diagnostic process was then consecutively evaluated in 22 male patients with TTP-like features.

Results: In the validation cohort, the DLM-based ECG system detected all cases of hypokalemia in TPP patients with a mean absolute error of 0.26 mEq/L and diagnosed TPP with an area under curve (AUC) of approximately 80%, surpassing the best standard ECG parameter (AUC = 0.7285 for the QR interval). Combining the AI predictions with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum chloride boosted the diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm to AUC 0.986. In the prospective study, the integrated AI and routine laboratory diagnostic system had a PPV of 100% and

Conclusion: An AI-ECG system reliably identifies hypokalemia in patients with paralysis, and integration with routine blood chemistries provides valuable decision support for the early diagnosis of TPP.

Clinical Institute

Kidney & Diabetes

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)