Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cardiovascular health: A clinical practice statement of the American Society for Preventive Cardiology Part II: Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, minimum and goal intensities for exercise training, prescriptive methods, and special patient populations.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Am J Prev Cardiol


montana; sph; ihi


The prescription of exercise for individuals with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD) should be scientifically-based yet adapted to the patient. This scientific statement reviews the clinical and physiologic basis for the prescription of exercise, with specific reference to the volume of physical activity (PA) and level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) that confer significant and optimal cardioprotective benefits. Recommendations are provided regarding the appropriate intensity, frequency, and duration of training; the concept of MET-minutes per week; critical components of the exercise session (warm-up, conditioning phase, cool-down); methodologies for establishing the training intensity, including oxygen uptake reserve (V̇O2R), target heart rate derivation and rating perceived exertion; minimum and goal intensities for exercise training; and, types of training activities, including resistance training, adjunctive lifestyle PA, marathon/triathlon training, and high-intensity interval training. In addition, we discuss the rationale for and value of exercise training programs for patients with peripheral artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and heart failure.

Clinical Institute

Kidney & Diabetes

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)