Consensus classification of pediatric hepatocellular tumors: A report from the Children's Hepatic tumors International Collaboration (CHIC).

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Pediatric blood & cancer


washington; spokane


BACKGROUND: Liver tumors are rare in children with histologic heterogeneity that makes diagnosis challenging. Systematic histopathological review, performed as part of collaborative therapeutic protocols, identified relevant histologic subtypes that are important to distinguish. The Children's Hepatic tumors International Collaboration (CHIC) was established to study pediatric liver tumors on a global scale and led to establishment of a provisional consensus classification for use in international clinical trials. The current study is the validation of this initial classification and first large-scale application by international expert reviewers.

PROCEDURE: The CHIC initiative includes data from 1605 children treated on eight multicenter hepatoblastoma (HB) trials. Review of 605 available tumors was performed by seven expert pathologists from three consortia (US, EU, Japan). Cases with discordant diagnoses were collectively reviewed to reach a final consensus diagnosis.

RESULTS: Of 599 cases with sufficient material for review, 570 (95.2%) were classified as HB by all consortia, and 29 (4.8%) as non-HB, which included "hepatocellular neoplasm, NOS" and malignant rhabdoid tumors. 453 of 570 HBs were classified as epithelial by final consensus. Some patterns (i.e., small cell undifferentiated, macrotrabecular, cholangioblastic) were selectively identified by reviewers from different consortia. All consortia identified a similar number of mixed epithelial-mesenchymal HB.

CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first large-scale application and validation of the pediatric malignant hepatocellular tumors consensus classification. It is a valuable resource to train future generations of investigators on accurate diagnosis of these rare tumors and provides a framework for further international collaborative studies and refinement of the current classification of pediatric liver tumors.

Clinical Institute


Clinical Institute

Digestive Health

Clinical Institute

Women & Children




Pathology & Laboratory Medicine